Research papers and foot notes


Further information on copyright and plagiarism

Reprinted with Permission. These are all examples of footnotes in different contexts. By continuing, you agree to our Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Please set a username for yourself. People will see it as Author Name with your public flash cards. A few footnote usage rules: Footnotes are numbered consecutively throughout the research paper, not rebeginning the numbering on each page.

College Research Papers : How to Write Footnotes in MLA Style

Each quotation requires a footnote. Footnotes are always double-spaced.

If you don't give credit to your sources, it's plagiarism

Footnotes are referenced using a superscript number. Footnotes in Research Footnotes can be found on the bottom of the same page as the original quote to which it is referring, or at the end of the paper or book entirely, after the page of References. Entire citations are not necessary in footnotes; instead, the footnote should merely refer to the name of the publication and date as listed on the reference page. If a copyright permission footnote is added, the original letter regarding copyright permission must be attached to the paper. Footnote Format Examples Sample Footnote 1 Text within the research paper: It is well known that patients who suffer from Crohn's and Colitis can have many debilitating symptoms.

Sample Footnote 2 Text within the research paper: A variety of research suggests that developing basic literacy skills in early childhood can contribute to greater success in acquiring strong comprehension skills later in school. Sample Footnote 3 Text within the research paper: While it is generally assumed that all large dogs are in need of copious amounts of exercise that would prevent them from being suitable pets for smaller residences, recent research has suggested this is a fallacy. Sample Footnote 4 Text within the research paper: In many states, malpractice lawsuit filings have limitations that may prevent the injured from pursuing the route necessary to receive compensation for injuries due to negligence by doctors, nurses, or other hospital staff.

Sample Footnote 5 Text within the research paper: While most candy and sweet treats are believed to have a negative effect on those with, or susceptible to getting, diabetes, more research is supporting the idea that chocolate, when consumed in moderation, can have positive effects on the body.

How to Use Footnotes in a History Paper

Sample Footnote 6 Text within the research paper: The development of aptitude with technology in young children should not overshadow the necessity of play which is crucial to building important gross and fine motor skills in early childhood. Sample Footnote 7 Text within the research paper: Interstitial cystitis is a condition that can cause pain and embarrassment for women of any age, and affects many aspects of her life.

In academic writing, footnotes, endnotes, and headnotes provide additional information on a particular topic. They are placed in the document as a supplement to the main text. These notes can be inserted into the document as a footer or at the end of a chapter. The notes should be kept as brief as possible. The objective is to provide more information without distracting the reader.

We discuss the different types of notes, how to use them, and their pros and cons. A footnote is a reference placed at the bottom of a page or footer. When writing your research paper, you would use a footnote to cite sources of facts or quotations.

Footnote Examples

Footnotes are referenced in the text in the same way as a citation. That is, the referenced text is followed by a superscript numeral, which corresponds to the numbered footnote at the bottom of the page. The format of footnotes is fairly standard see below for specific rules and is the same as that for references as follows:. Adrian Johns. Endnotes are much the same as footnotes except that they are placed at the end your research paper instead of at the bottom of a page. In books, they can be placed after each chapter or at the end of the book.

In many cases, the book publisher decides the best placement. Endnotes, as footnotes, are numerically noted in superscript.

Subject Guides

The format is the same as that for footnotes. Headnotes are used as introductions in legal documents or as summaries of the text that follows them. In academic writing, headnotes are explanatory notes included with tables and figures. They are placed below the table itself or just below the figure title and typed in a font size that is smaller than the main text e. Headnotes are used to define acronyms used, units of measure, significance, etc.

Although the format for footnotes and endnotes is almost similar, there are specific rules depending on the journal where the paper is submitted. Most scientific journals use specific reference formats; however, some style guides do not allow footnotes and endnotes. For example, the Modern Language Association MLA , which deals specifically with disciplines in the humanities allows limited use of footnotes.


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These are to provide the reader with other sources for more information on the subject covered. The MLA style for these notes is shown in the example below and the number corresponds to the superscript number noted in the referenced text:.


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In contrast, the American Psychological Association APA , the style for the behavioral and social sciences, does not usually allow footnotes.

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