Rajasthan has recorded the highest, number of cases under this category while in it was 21, in it decreased to 21, There is a decrease in the incidence of Arson in compared to in Chennai State. It is cases in compared to cases in In India highest number of Arsons has been recorded by Andhra Pradesh in During , cases of dowry deaths were recorded in Chennai as compared to cases in It is found that Uttar Pradesh has recorded the highest number of dowry deaths with in and in Those crimes which are committed primarily due to outward or external factors and circumstances come under this category.
Suppose a generous person or social worker finds a devil attempting to rape a woman.
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The woman is shouting for help but no one dares to go near her and save her. This courageous man instantly runs to save the woman from the greatest disaster of her life. While doing this the rapist brings out a knife from his pocket and tries to kill the social worker. The social worker tries to protect himself. In this encounter the knife instead of piercing the good man pierces the devil and he is dead. This is a case of murder committed due to situational factor. Similarly while going in a procession a group of striking employees shouts slogans against their employer, when there was sudden provocation from the police the group started throwing stones and bricks at the police.
This is a crime committed by situations and circumstance. Such crimes usually take place out of provocation. Sometimes due to excessive poverty people start stealing things.
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But law does not take cognizance of this. According to law this is a crime. Here the crime is neither planned nor motivated not intentional, neither deliberate. These are also called organised crimes. These are serious crimes committed by persons according their sweet will and nobody forces them to commit these crimes. The force comes from within. After careful deliberation and conspiracy when a crime is hatched it is called deliberate crime.
Thousands of instances of such crimes are daily observed. Revenge, vindictiveness, money, property matters, anger, jealousy all these may tempt one to plan a crime and commit it in an organised manner. White collar crimes are of this type. When people join a particular office they take oath of secrecy. The confidential matters in every office be it a Govt. Bank or a public sector undertaking is to be kept secret.
But when some people without observing code of conduct or oath of allegiance transmit the confidential matters to the vested interest person it is called crime involving confidence. Examples of such cases are not rare in our country as well as in other countries. They are treacherous persons and enemy of the country. When a young and talented girl is given a job not for the sake of her talent but for her body, by a business executive it is a case of crime of confidence.
Such crimes are increasing day by day in every country. Crimes committed by spies are of this type. Crimes are also classified into Cybercrime, crime against women, crime against children and minority groups, which will be discussed in due course.
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Organised crimes are also known as white collar crimes. Crimes committed by smugglers, politicians, terrorists, businessmen, persons engaged in drug trafficking, prostitution, in a planned and organised manner are called organised crimes. Most of the serious crimes committed in the modern society are so organised that police hardly get any clue to detect such crimes. High class prostitution, racket of call girls, political murders, smuggling of arms and ammunitions are organised crimes. Even crimes like Bank robbery, theft of Scooters, Cars and two in ones, computers and mobile phones are now a days committed in an organised manner and many persons are involved in it.
It just works in a network through a racket. Organised crimes are more dangerous than unorganized crimes. These crimes are committed after proper planning, co-ordination between the gangs operating at different places and training. The would be criminals or first time petty criminals are given training in pick pocketing, chain snatching, smuggling immoral traffic, murder, robbery and looting of banks.
Children and adolescents are kidnapped from their way to school, friend market or playground. Then they are kept in group of other children already kidnapped and trained in the techniques of various types of crime in a scientific way. Organised crimes are controlled by a leader and several sub leaders. They are provided with all the luxuries of life. So they get addicted to crimes. Crimes committed by individuals in their individuals capacity because of poverty, financial constraints and at the spur of the moment are called unorganized crimes.
In unorganized crime there is no racket or network. There is no leader. The offenders do not commit the crime systematically through previous plans and intentions. Unorganized criminals are usually not habitual offenders. Petty thefts, robbery or molestation done in a haphazard and erratic manner are examples of unorganized crimes. Criminals of unorganized crimes are usually detected quickly and such crimes do not continue for a long period. These criminals also do not engage themselves repeatedly in crimes. Unless rejected by the society, unorganized crimes are less dangerous than organised crimes.
Crimes can also be divided in to property crimes, sex crimes, political crimes, religious crimes, terrorist crimes, social crimes.
Crime is also related to age. It is seen that crime is mostly committed during the young and middle ages i.volunteerparks.org/wp-content/xisezaf/2063.php
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Very few old people are involved in crimes. Crimes committed with relation to professional and business activity is called white collar crime. In the current age professional and business activities are more found in a capitalistic society where usually a white collar criminal is not punished.
Sutherland an eminent criminologist of the world has defined white collar crime as follows:. A white collar crime violates the provisions of law and is committed against the society like any other crime. So it is punishable by law. According to Sutherland white collar crime not only emphasizes punishment but includes punish ability. But unfortunately the law enforcing authorities in capitalistic societies are normally bent upon to ignore or minimize the crimes and illegal activities committed by white collar criminals.
Sutherland holds that white collar crime is based on violation of trust. For example, many publishers sell more books but show less to the authors, there by exploiting the authors and writers. Many educational institutions get full grant in aid from government for the teachers appointed but pay much less to them and the employees are asked to put up their signatures that they are taking the salary paid by government.
Similarly a construction agency or builder pays Rs. When for the financial benefits of the employer the employees are asked to sign on false documents, it amounts to white collar crime. A construction company who actually spends bags of cement in a particular construction work, but gets the signature from the junior engineer for bags, commits a white collar crime.
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Corruption is therefore a white collar crime. Contractors get huge sum of money by paying bribes to the engineer.
Smuggling goods and services are also white collar crimes. White collar crime is more found in urban, industrialized cities committed by highly influential persons who often escape being detected because of the mask they use to cheat the society. Call girl racket is a kind of white collar crime managed by people in the high strata of the society. According to Sutherland a white collar criminal is rarely punished and so this crime flourishes.
While the other criminals are shown no sympathy or mercy the white collar criminals get all sympathy from the society and law enforcing authorities.
White collar crime is a property related crime and it is not related to any physical violence or murder. Politically and economically powerful people well placed in the society committing white collar crime are not detected and apprehended by the government and police because they are also susceptible to corruption.
Sometimes the white collar criminals involve government agencies very cunningly in their illegal activities so that when detected they could get protection from these officials. In this connection I remember an incident.
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