Yet in a later work, his Critique of Dialectical Reason, he claims to be inspired by Marxist philosophy, and a central tenet of Marx's thought is that conflict and alienation can be eliminated through a transformation of economic and social conditions. Thus one might expect the Critique's theory of human relations to differ significantly from the earlier view. In this investigation, I compare and contrast Sartre's philosophy of human relations in these two major philosophical works.
Through a careful explication of these texts, I compare his views on several major themes--human multiplicity, the theory of groups, and the roles of objectification and the project-to-be-God in human relations. I conclude that although many basic principles enunciated in Being and Nothingness' theory of interpersonal relations survive in the Critique of Dialectical Reason, there are indeed significant changes. He was against those critics who defined the idealist philosophers and intellectuals of his times and claimed that they were understood way too easily and quickly by the scholars.
Here an individual begins to take the true direction and take the responsibility of good and evil and also align himself to the moral laws. As the individual can be ethically serious without being religious but a religious individual is also ethical.
In this stage an individual becomes more inclined towards God and to his commands, leaving behind the moral habits. The second most crucial philosopher after Soren Kierkegaard is Friedrich Nietzsche 15 October — 25 August , the atheist philosopher, who is seen as the root of the line of atheistic existentialism. He was a German philosopher, poet, cultural critic and philologist. He begun his career as a classic philologist and later turned to the philosophy. In , at the early age of 24, he was the first youngest to hold the chair of philologist in the University of Basel.
His work touched upon the philology, art, history, tragedy, science, culture and religion. Few prominent elements of his philosophy include Christian Morality, Critique of Truth in favour of Perspectivism, theory of master-slave morality, paradoxical presence of God and Nihilism. According to him, Existentialism emerges as the problem of thinking the paradoxical presence of God. The other atheistic existentialists include Martin Heidegger 26 September — 26 May , who was an atheist.
He was a German philosopher and seminal thinker.
He was considered as the most important, genuine and original philosopher of the 20th century. He is well known for his contributions to existentialism and to phenomenology. He is a prominent figure in developing the existential movement further in the 20th century, and also his first book, though unfinished, Being and Time , is one of the most famous and important works of the 20th century. But he denied being labelled as an existentialist. He majorly focussed on Being and time.
He in his famous work, Being and Time, tries to define Being i. According to Heidegger, existence of an individual is not just seen through a single aspect rather through different activities whereas; Sartre gives more emphasis on the individual and the responsibility of his decisions, i. According to the philosophy of Heidegger, the existence of an individual is more associated with anxiety and despair, as the individual has to alienate himself from the society, and the world.
Heidegger divides existence into three levels, first being the man, second, the world and the third, the things of use. According to Heidegger, moods play an important part because when an individual tries to alienate himself from the world, he feels anxiety and anxiety is a form of mood.. Anxiety is the fear of losing something, the fear of nothingness, i. The things does not disappear in nothingness rather becomes little strange, which helps a person to recover the forgotten meaning of being.
He was a French playwright, philosopher, political activist, literary critic, novelist and biographer.
John c. Carney (University of Connecticut) - PhilPeople
He was one of the prominent figures who contributed in the further development of the Existential philosophy and phenomenology. He was considered as one of the leading figures of the 20th century French Marxism and philosophy. His works influenced many, including, critical theories, literary studies, sociology and post-colonial theory.
Sartre had very different view than the other philosophers and writers of his time. Sartre made major contribution in literature through literary biography and literary criticism. His works are very richly symbolic, specially his plays and novels which serve to convey his philosophy.
Sartre got highly influenced by Husserl and Heidegger when he first read their works while staying in Berlin.
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After studying their works, he developed an interest in analysing the multi-layered human existence and also that an individual has to realise the ultimate goal of his life, that he should achieve or work to achieve. As his major philosophical work Being and Nothingness, the Phenomenological Ontology is about human existence and not of some Ultimate Being. As Sartre was interested in exploring the reality of an individual through his personal experiences and the reactions, emotions and reactions and the variety of mental life of a human being.
But whether Sartre is a Cartesian Dualist or not is still a matter of confusion because he contradicts himself on many aspects. As in his early work, Being and Nothingness, he deals with the human freedom, freewill, authenticity, bad faith, etc. Wittgenstein argued that if you want to be a good philosopher you should first become a car mechanic. Or I would say, a palaeontologist or a biologist, like EO Wilson, capable of paying attention to what ants or apes do, not just humans. Doctoral students are people who devote immense energy, heart, and time to digging into subjects like this. They are people who at their best can think cross-human and even non-human.
But let us not forget the human side. Can you lend a hand? But this sobering experience does not mean that you are completely useless for all practical purposes. So perhaps the world should beware of people with PhDs. You can find our Community Guidelines in full here. Want to discuss real-world problems, be involved in the most engaging discussions and hear from the journalists? Start your Independent Premium subscription today. Independent Premium Comments can be posted by members of our membership scheme, Independent Premium.
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