The selection of algal strains is exclusively dependent on various factors like oil content, production yield and downstream processing and also on adaptability of microalgae toward high oxygen concentration, temperature variations and water chemistry [ 1 ]. Biofuel yields from microalgae [ 27 ]. The algal metabolism consisting of photosynthetic potential, which makes it unique in comparison to other microorganisms when it comes to processing sugars from cellulosic sources such as grass and wood chips.
After algal biomass degradation into sugar, there are substances like lignin associated with it, which are toxic to microorganisms.
Removal of lignin is, thus, essential to promote further microbial growth leading to processing of sugar. Algae are tolerant to the presence of lignin, which makes the processing convenient coupled with reduction in the economic cost.
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In addition to this, there are other applications of algae like aquaculture, high-value products and nutraceuticals, which can be extracted from algae [ 2 ]. The microalgae require minimal inputs for metabolic processes—namely sunlight, CO 2 and water, with few required mineral nutrients. Sunlight is the most readily available and inexpensive source of energy on earth. The efficiency of microalgae in converting captured solar energy into biomass exceeds the potential of terrestrial plants.
Microalgae do not compete with terrestrial plants for land or water supply as they can be grown in wastewater, leading to their remediation coupled with biomass production. The acumen of microalgae to inhabit diverse habitats could be exploited to allow for the production of compounds near the site of use, which could reduce the transportation costs [ 3 ].
Microalgae are one of the most promising candidates for plethora of biofuels owing to their easy, inexpensive and simple cultivation system. They grow easily with basic nutritional requirements like air, water and mineral salts with light as the only energy source.
They grow on liquid media, so diverse wastewater can also be utilized, which can be efficiently remediated by algae coupled with biofuel production. The optimal use of light energy through photosynthesis is very efficiently executed by microalgae. They possess higher photosynthetic levels and growth rates and can be used for the production of desired biofuels. They can contain considerable amounts of lipids that are mainly present in the thylakoid membranes. Their biofuels are nontoxic and highly biodegradable. They are essentially free-living chloroplasts and are the pinnacle of minimizing structural component.
They have high carbon dioxide sequestering efficacy thereby, reducing GHG emissions. They reduce nutrient load in wastewater as they can utilize nitrogen and phosphorous present in agricultural, industrial and municipal wastewater owing to their phycoremediation acumen. They can be cultivated in areas like seashore, desert, and so on, which is not suitable for agricultural plants and not competing with cultivable land.
Their cultivation is independent of seasons as they can be cultivated round the year and have minimal environmental impact. The cultures can be facilitated to produce high yields through technological interventions of genetic engineering, synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, and so on as algal systems are readily adaptable. The biofuels from algae are diverse in nature.
Carbohydrate component of biomass is used for bioethanol production, while algal oil for biodiesel and the residual biomass can be utilized for methane, fuel gas or fuel oil production. The biomass after biofuel production can further be used as source of many value-added products like eicosapentaenoic acid EPA , docosahexaenoic acid DHA , nutraceuticals, protein supplements, therapeutics, biocontrol agents, fertilizers, animal feed and aquaculture.
The biofuels include alcohols, which are produced through fermentation, processing of algal biomass through dual approach of hydrolysis and fermentation, traditional method of transesterification, gasification of biomass or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis [ 4 ]. Biodiesel has comparable engine performance to petroleum diesel fuel, while reducing sulfur and particulate matter emissions [ 5 , 6 ].
Biodiesel is a biodegradable alternative fuel derived from renewable sources and is nontoxic in nature [ 7 ]. During the manufacturing process, triacylglycerols TAGs are transesterified with an acid or alkali catalyst to produce biodiesel and glycerol [ 8 ]. The algal biodiesel production processes fatty acid methyl esters FAME. The chemical composition of biodiesel is generally produced by transesterification of algal oil in the presence of acid or alkali as a catalyst [ 5 ]. The biodiesel from algae can be derived directly from transesterification of algal biomass [ 9 ]. Alternately, it can also be produced by two-step process wherein the lipids are initially extracted and later on transesterified, though either of the processes involves lipid extraction through solvents and alcohols like methanol, isopropanol and petroleum ether [ 8 , 10 ].
The process of direct transesterification is fast and cost-effective technology. Biodiesel generated from microalgae can be an excellent alternative to current diesel crisis, but in order to efficiently produce biodiesel from microalgae, strains with a high growth rate and oil content have to be selected [ 11 ]. The anaerobic digestion of organic matter leads to formation of fuel called biogas or biomethane. There are four stages of anaerobic digestion [ 12 ], which are described as follows: Biopolymer hydrolysis to monosaccharaides mediated by hydrolytic bacteria.
Microalgae has been reported to produce biogas as source of fuel, although the yield of biogas formation is quite low because of the sensitivity of algal cells to bacterial degradation and low carbon and nitrogen C:N ratio, which leads to the formation of inhibitor ammonia. In Scenedesmus spp. The microalga species are capable of producing hydrocarbons, which can further be converted to diesel, kerosene and gasoline. The microalga, Botryococcus braunii, has been reported to produce hydrocarbons with excellent oil yield [ 14 ].
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The habitat of B. In addition to this, the hydrocarbons from B. Microalgae can directly produce hydrogen from sunlight and water, only in the complete absence of oxygen. Hydrogen is a promising future energy source because it does not emit greenhouse gases and releases water as a by-product [ 18 ]. There are limitations existing regarding the large-scale production of hydrogen as fuel. At present, hydrogen is produced by stream reformation, photofermentation [ 19 ] and photolysis of water mediated by photosynthetic algae [ 20 ].
Purple non-sulfur bacteria derive hydrogen from diverse substrates, while green sulfur bacteria get hydrogen gas from hydrogen sulfide H 2 S. Biodiesel is gaining more and more importance due to environmental issues. Safflower could be a sustainable raw material for biodiesel production, showing one disadvantage as many biodiesels from vegetable oils , that is, a short oxidative stability. Consequently, the use of antioxidants to increase this parameter is mandatory.
The aim of this research work was to assess the effect of two antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole, BHA, and tert-butylhydroquinone, TBHQ on the oxidative stability of safflower biodiesel, which was characterized paying attention to its fatty acid methyl ester profile. For oxidative stability, the Rancimat method was used, whereas for fatty acid profile gas chromatography was selected.
The overall conclusion was that safflower biodiesel could comply with the standard, thanks to the use of antioxidants, with TBHQ being more effective than BHA. On the other hand, the combined use of these antioxidants did not show, especially at low concentrations, a synergic or additive effect, which makes the mixture of these antioxidants unsuitable to improve the oxidative stability.
Abstract Primarily produced via transesterification of lipid sources, fatty acid methyl ester FAME of biodiesel derived from insect larvae has gained momentum in a great deal of research done over other types of feedstock. From the self-harvesting nature of black soldier fly larvae BSFL , [ Primarily produced via transesterification of lipid sources, fatty acid methyl ester FAME of biodiesel derived from insect larvae has gained momentum in a great deal of research done over other types of feedstock.
Introduction to biodiesel fuel
Biodiesel products from both instars showed no differences in terms of FAME content. With modification on CEW, at 0. Mean values indicated by same alphabetical letter were not significantly different. Abstract A novel method as proposed in the production of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel has been investigated experimentally.
This study reports the results of biodiesel processing with electromagnetic induction technology. The applied method is aimed to compare the results of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel processing among [ A novel method as proposed in the production of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel has been investigated experimentally.
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The applied method is aimed to compare the results of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel processing among conventional, microwave and electromagnetic induction. The degumming, transesterification, and esterification process of the 3 methods are measured by stopwatch to obtain time comparison data.
The results present that the biodiesel produced by this method satisfies the biodiesel standards and their characteristics are better than the biodiesel produced by conventional and microwave methods. The electromagnetic induction method also offers a fast and easy route to produce biodiesel with the advantage of increasing the reaction rate and improving the separation process compared to other methods. This advanced technology has the potential to significantly increase biodiesel production with considerable potential to reduce production time and costs.
Abstract The molar ratio of methanol to rubber seed oil RSO , catalyst loading, and the reaction time of RSO biodiesel production were optimized in this work.
Research Paper on Biodiesel
The response surface methodology, using the Box—Behnken design, was analyzed to determine the optimum fatty acid methyl ester [ The molar ratio of methanol to rubber seed oil RSO , catalyst loading, and the reaction time of RSO biodiesel production were optimized in this work. The response surface methodology, using the Box—Behnken design, was analyzed to determine the optimum fatty acid methyl ester FAME yield. Rubber seed biodiesel was produced via the transesterification process under subcritical methanol conditions with nanomagnetic catalysts.
The optimum conditions were a molar ratio of methanol to RSO, 1. Abstract Marine microalgae are a promising feedstock for biofuel production given their high growth rates and biomass production together with cost reductions due to the use of seawater for culture preparation. However, different microalgae species produce different families of compounds. Some compounds could be [ Marine microalgae are a promising feedstock for biofuel production given their high growth rates and biomass production together with cost reductions due to the use of seawater for culture preparation.
Some compounds could be used directly as fuels, while others require thermochemical processing to obtain quality biofuels.
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